The Lexical Simplification List

This is a hand curated page of references pertaining to lexical simplification.  For more info check out the blog post

For a page of references about Text Simplification in general, check out this list.

If you know of any references you think should be on this list, please get in contact and I will be happy to add them.


Medical text simplification using synonym replacement: Adapting assessment of word difficulty to a compounding language. E. Abrahamsson, T. Forni, M. Skeppstedt, and M. Kvist. PDF

Improving readability of Swedish electronic health records through lexical simplification: First re- sults. G. Grigonyte, M. Kvist, S. Velupillai, and M. Wirén. PDF

Synonym extraction and abbreviation expansion with ensembles of semantic spaces. A. Henriksson, H. Moen, M. Skeppstedt, V. Daudaravicius, and M. Duneld. Link

Integration of lexical and syntactic simplification capabilities in a text editor. R. Hervás, S. Bautista, M. Rodríguez, T. de Salas, A. Vargas, and P. Gervás. Link

Learning a lexical simplifier using Wikipedia. C. Horn, C. Manduca, and D. Kauchak. PDF


Comparing resources for Spanish lexicalsimplification. H. Saggion, S. Bott, and L. Rello. Link

A system for the simplification of numerical expressions at different levels of understandability. S. Bautista, R. Hervás, P. Gervás, R. Power and S. Williams. PDF

As simple as it gets - a sentence simplifier for different learning levels and contexts. B. P. Nunes, R. Kawase, P. Siehndel, M. A. Casanova, and S. Dietze. PDF

Selecting proper lexical paraphrase for children. T. Kajiwara, H. Matsumoto and K. Yamamoto. PDF

Text simplification as tree transduction. G. Paetzold and L. Specia. PDF

Sentence simplification as tree transduction. D. Feblowitz and D. Kauchak. PDF

Automatic text simplification in Spanish: A comparative evaluation of complementing modules. B. Drndarevic, S. Stajner, S. Bott, S. Bautista, and H. Saggion. Link

Approches a base de frequences pour la simplification lexicale. A.-L. Ligozat, C. Grouin, A. Garcia-Fernandez, and D. Bernhard. PDF

Simplify or help?: text simplification strategies for people with dyslexia. L. Rello, R. Baeza-Yates, S. Bott, and H. Saggion. PDF

Frequent words improve readability and short words improve understandability for people with dyslexia. L. Rello, R. Baeza-Yates, L. Dempere, and H. Saggion. Link PDF

One half or 50%? an eye-tracking study of number representation readability. L. Rello, S. Bautista, R. Baeza-Yates, P. Gervas, R. Hervas, and H. Saggion. Link PDF

Improving text simplification language modeling using unsimplified text data. D. Kauchak. PDF

User evaluation of the effects of a text simplification algorithm using term familiarity on perception, understanding, learning, and information retention. G. Leroy, J. Endicott, D. Kauchak, O. Mouradi, and M Just. Link PDF


Sb: Mmsystem - using decompositional semantics for lexical simplification. M. Amoia and M. Romanelli. PDF

A simplification-translation-restoration framework for cross-domain SMT applications. H.-B. Chen, H.-H. Huang, H.-H. Chen, and C.-T. Tan. PDF

A dataset for the evaluation of lexical simplification. J. de Belder and M.-F. Moens. Link PDF

Uow-shef: Simplex – lexical simplicity ranking based on contextual and psycholinguistic features. S. K. Jauhar and L. Specia. PDF

EMNLP@CPH: Is frequency all there is to simplicity? A. Johannsen, H. Martinez, S. Klerke, and A. Søgaard. PDF

Automatic text simplification via synonym replacement. R. Keskisarkka. Link PDF

Annlor: A naive notation system for lexical outputs ranking. A. Ligozat, C. Grouin, A. Garcia-Fernandez, and D. Bernhard. PDF

Unt-simprank: Systems for lexical simplification ranking. R. Sinha. PDF

Semeval-2012 task 1: English lexical simplification. L. Specia, S. K. Jauhar, and R. Mihalcea. PDF

WordNet-based lexical simplification of a document. S. R. Thomas and S. Anderson.  Link PDF

Can Spanish be simpler? LexSiS: Lexical simplification for Spanish. S. Bott, L. Rello, B. Drndarevic, and H. Saggion. PDF

Towards automatic lexical simplification in Spanish: An empirical study. B. Drndarevic and H. Saggion. PDF


Putting it simply: A context-aware approach to lexical simplification. O. Biran, S. Brody, and N. Elhadad. PDF


Fostering digital inclusion and accessibility: The PorSimples project for simplification of Portuguese texts. S. M. Aluisio and C. Gasperin. PDF

Lexical simplification. J. De Belder, K. Deschacht, and M. Moens. PDF

Text simplification for children. J. De Belder and M. Moens. Link PDF

For the sake of simplicity: Unsupervised extraction of lexical simplifications from Wikipedia. M. Yatskar, B. Pang, C. Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, and L. Lee. Link PDF


Extracting lay paraphrases of specialized expressions from monolingual comparable medical corpora. L. Deleger and P. Zweigenbaum. PDF

Facilita: Reading assistance for low-literacy readers. W. Watanabe, A. Junior, V. Uzeda, R. Fortes, T. Pardo, and S. Aluisio. Link


Mining a lexicon of technical terms and lay equivalents. N. Elhadad and K. Sutaria. Link PDF

Query expansion, lexical simplification and sentence selection strategies for multi-document summarization. C. Blake, J. Kampov, A. Orphanides, D. West, and C. Lown. PDF


Simtext text simplification of medical literature. J. Damay, G. Lojico, K. Lu, E. Ong, and D. Tarantan. PDF

Helping aphasic people process online information. S. Devlin and G. Unthank. Link

Paraphrasing for automatic evaluation. D. Kauchak and R. Barzilay. Link PDF


Text simplification for reading assistance: A project note. K. Inui, A. Fujita, T. Takahashi, R. Iida, and T. Iwakura. Link PDF


Practical simplification of English newspaper text to assist aphasic readers. J. Carrol, G. Minnen, Y. Canning, S. Devlin, and J. Tait. Link PDF

The use of a psycholinguistic database in the simplification of text for aphasic readers. S. Devlin and J. Tait. Link

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